Medical University of Plovdiv Bulgaria
Introduction Mass casualty events are becoming almost daily news nowadays. Trafic road accidents, floods, industrial failures or fires are in constant growth in frequency and severity of consequences during last decades. What is one of the most distinguished features of these events is the number of the casualties requiring medical assistance, number that is overwhelming the available medical means and capabilities at the spot of the event. This discrepancy is leading to the significant change into the modus operandi of the hospitals that are in visinity of the event. The Outpatients-addmission departments are one of the most affected by these changes.
The objective of our study is to present the changes into Hospital Outpatient-admission departments due to the mass casualty event
Materials and Methods Hospital Disaster Response Plans and the activities throughout COVID-19 pandemic are analyzed. The means of descriptive method are applied to present the planned and executed activities during the mass casualty event into these departments that are compared with the routine work flow.
Results and Discussion The greatest challenge in case of one mass casualty event is the scarcity of medical assets in or close to the place, where the event occurs – a lot of patients are requiring life-saving or urgent medical support. This provokes sharp increase into the number of patients that have to be admitted into hospital premises, within limited timeframe.
The required changes for effective saving of life and protection of health of the casualties are discussed and presented
Prof Colonel Rostislav Stefanov Kostadinov is Organizing and leading the educational process for Medical University of Plovdiv and Medical College of Plovdiv students. Delivering lectures, leading seminars and the students examine. Monitoring, organizing, and facilitating the International relations and Project activities of the Public Health Faculty academic staff. Organizing and leading Ph.D. and resident programs on Disaster Medicine and Disaster Medical Support at the Medical University of Plovdiv Planning, organizing, and managing courses for improvement of the population skills for healthy behavior in case of disasters and catastrophes. Leading and managing courses for disaster medical support (for medical professionals) and advance medical training for search and rescue team members.
Professor Global Health, York University Canada
The global pandemic covid-19 impacted with public health ,food security and unemployment. The economic and social disruption caused by this pandemic is beyond recoverable. The pandemic had affected the entire food system and livelihood loss with border closures, trade restrictions , confinement measures and job loss. The COVID-19 crisis had opened eyes towards issues in particular workers’ health and safety, Adhering to workplace safety and health practices and ensuring access to decent work and the protection of labour rights in all industries will be crucial in addressing the human dimension of the crisis. Immediate and purposeful action to save lives and livelihoods should include extending social protection towards universal health coverage and income support for those most affected. These include workers in the informal economy and in poorly protected and low-paid jobs, including youth, older workers, and migrants. Particular attention must be paid to the situation of women, who are over-represented in low-paid jobs and care roles. Different forms of support are key, including cash transfers, child allowances and healthy school meals, shelter and food relief initiatives, support for employment retention and recovery, and financial relief for businesses, including micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. We must develop the strategies for the future of our environment and tackle climate change and environmental degradation with ambition and urgency to protect the health, livelihoods, food security and nutrition of all people. Global solidarity and support is the need of the hour , especially with the most vulnerables to overcome the intertwined health and social and economic impacts of the pandemic. We must recognize this opportunity to build back better. This paper will inform about the community resiliency process to manage future pandemic.
Professor Minakshi Das is affiliated with Global Health of York University and possesses 20 years of research and implementation experience in Reproductive Health globally. Her research engagements concentrated on maternal and child health and well-being, sexual violence against women and children community health governance, public health policies and reform, health, and human rights, and environmental health and well-being, As a public health policy analyst, she has developed community health interventions in association with UNICEF and UNFPA. Her current research focus is on the impact of Covid-19 and community resiliency in India and Nepal.
Mentoring in Medicine and Scientia Lab USA
The outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the world—albeit not in a positive way. Job loss has been one of the worst financial shocks families have faced, making it extremely difficult to make ends meet and causing devastating downstream effects like foreclosures, evictions, and above all putting food on the table. To understand food accessibility during the pandemic, this paper explores different scenarios of affordability, accessibility, and transportation. We started with the premise that the lockdown, untenable living costs, and disruptions caused by COVID -19 would expose the fragility of people’s access to food especially, in lower socio-economic groups.
A cross-sectional survey in English and Spanish was conducted using the PhenX Toolkit for 18 days. We tested our hypothesis with the Chi-square test and used functions to compute the depression scores from the PHQ-9 questionnaire.
Our results show that COVID-19 negatively impacted the affordability of food and access to food from food retailers. It, however, had no significant impact on the availability of healthy food in stores, qualification for food programs, distance to the nearest food retailer, and mode of transportation used for grocery shopping. We, at Scientia Lab, believe that this is just a starting point for a food system transformation that builds resilience at all levels, especially in affordability and accessibility during future pandemics.
Madhalasa Iyer is a rising freshman from Princeton University and an award-winning writer, environmentalist and scientist recognized by national organizations like the Scholastic Art & Writing Awards, Discovery Education, Anthony Quinn Foundation, University of Washington, New York Life Foundation and local groups including her city’s performing arts center and her ISD. Her scientific work has been published in the Journal of Student Research, Mentoring in Medicine Journal and Curieux Academic Journal. She is also a speaker for both TEDX and EarthX. She is extremely passionate about public health and seeks to make a difference in her community.
George Mason UniversityUSA
Racism deeply affectsthe social determinants of health, resultingin racial health inequities in populations of color. Recently, measures have been taken to address this issue in Washington, DC. These measures include the 2020 Racial Equity Achieves Results (REACH) Amendment Act, which focuses on racial equity, social justice, and economic inclusion (The DC Line, 2020). To further these efforts, there is a need to understand the relationship between structural racism, unemployment, poverty, and violence. The research reported here explores the correlation between historic racism, social determinants of health, housing policies, and community violence in Washington, DC. The methods used include mappingracial covenants from 1940 to 2010, neighborhood displacement, and social determinants of health. Currentmortgage lending in the neighborhoods across the city was used to measure the housing market and lending discrimination. The author also used demographic data from various sources to measure the social determinants of health across statistical neighborhoods. Findings indicate that Wards 5, 7 and 8, in Southern and Eastern parts of DC, have the highest rates of crime, unemployment and concentrated poverty and the lowest house lending rates. Between 1940-2010, these wards also experienced the most housingdisplacement. The district’s racial dissimilarity index of 70.9 indicates that Washington, DC is still highly segregated and that individual health and exposure to violence varies significantly by zip code. To achieve health equity, appropriate measures to dismantle structural racism must be taken. The needed measures must be linked to community- based participatory research and policies that incorporate the historical context of the problem along with the voices of community members.
Nadia Altaher is a recent graduate from George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia with a major in Community Health and a minor in Data Analysis. She has experience interning at various health departments, including at the Office of Health Equity in DC Department of Health and with a maternal public health nurse at Fairfax County Health Department. Nadia won an award within the College of Public Health at George Mason University for Interdisciplinary research and graduated with honors. She is excited to continue her education and hopes to gain more experience with research and data analysis.
Clinical Audiologist at Ministry Of Health Malawi Malawi
The rate of hearing loss caused by wax impaction is most common in low- and middle-income countries, with the resulting hearing loss typically being of the conductive kind. This study focused on the prevalence of wax and related factors among primary school learners in Lilongwe, Malawi. The screening procedures was done using otoscope, tympanometer and audiometer. The study was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study used a random sample of one hundred and fifty learners from six public primary schools; three from rural and three from urban. The results showed that fifty-one learners had wax (34 %) of the total sample and ninety nine learners had no wax (66%), with a relatively small mean age (M=13.43, SD=2.15). It also showed that there is no significant difference of wax prevalence between urban and rural public schools but the use of cotton buds is the preferred method used in urban with 38.7%, while matchstick is commonly used in rural areas with 34.7%. Wax impaction is a common ear problem among primary school learners in Lilongwe. There is no significant difference of wax impaction between urban and rural public primary schools. The study recommended that awareness, screening programmes and routine otoscopy should be done in primary schools.
My name is Regina Bickiel Kachapila from Lilongwe Malawi. She Graduated from Starkey Hearing Institute in Zambia 2016 as Hearing Instrument Specialist. She have being involve herself in training others on primary ear care, conducting outreach clinics and fitting hearing aid and rehabilitation with 7 years’ experience working with Ministry of Health Malawi. And now she has Master’s Degree in Clinical Audiology and Hearing Therapy from School of Advanced Education, Research and Accreditation (SAERA) in Spain and she is registered with Medical Council of Malawi as an Audiologist. Regina is the Executive Director of ASHA Specialist Audiology Clinic which provides ear and hearing care including balance in Lilongwe.
Public Health Professional India
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) play a critical role in public health programs, ensuring effective implementation, accountability, and evidence-based decision-making. This abstract presents a synthesis of influential scientific papers on the importance of monitoring and evaluation in public health.
The reviewed papers cover a range of topics related to M&E in health programs, providing practical guidance and perspectives for practitioners, administrators, field workers, and managers. They emphasize the need for comprehensive M&E frameworks that enable systematic assessment, measurement, and analysis of program outcomes and impacts thus improving patient care, program management, and resource allocation. The interpretive and ethnographic perspectives, emphasizing the importance of understanding social and cultural contexts when evaluating health interventions have also been stated. Additionally, the challenges and opportunities associated with M&E in health and social development are discussed, highlighting the complexities of implementing robust evaluation systems.
They emphasize the role of stakeholders, such as public health practitioners and evaluators, in driving M&E efforts and facilitating knowledge sharing. By embracing robust M&E practices, public health programs can optimize their impact, enhance accountability, and contribute to evidence-informed policies and interventions.
Manasi Parad is a Paramedic and a Public Health Professional. She completed her MSc. in Applied Public Health from Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom in 2018. She has a 5-year experience in working in the Hospital, Teaching, IT & Social Sector. She is a Junior Executive at NICHE Advocacy Foundation, an NGO working for Emotional Fitness. She has a keen interest in Communicable & Non-Communicable Diseases, Disaster Management, Public Health Policy, Public Health Advocacy and Monitoring & Evaluation.
Tshwane University of Technology South Africa
A mathematical model for studying the dynamics of monkeypox virus transmission with non-pharmaceutical intervention is created, examined, and simulated using real-time data. Positiveness, invariance, and boundedness of the solutions are thus examined as fundamental features of mathematical models. The equilibrium points and the prerequisites for their stability are achieved. The basic reproduction number and thus the virus transmission were determined and quantitatively used to study the global stability of the model’s steady state. Furthermore, this study considered the sensitivity analysis of the parameters according to R0. The most sensitive variables that are important for infection control are determined using the normalized forward sensitivity index. Data from the United Kingdom collected between May and August 2022, which also aid in demonstrating the usefulness and practical application of the model to the spread of the disease in the United Kingdom, were used. In addition, using the Caputo– Fabrizio operator, Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem has been used to analyze the existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the suggested model. The numerical simulations are presented to assess the system dynamic behavior. More vulnerability was observed when monkeypox virus cases first appeared recently as a result of numerical calculations. We advise the policymakers to consider these elements to control monkeypox transmission. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that another control parameter could be the memory index or fractional order.
Adeniji Adejimi, PhD in Mathematical Technology (Applied Mathematics) and proceeded to resume a postdoctoral research fellow position at the Tshwane University of Technology. He has published several papers in the reputable journal peer-reviewed. His field of research is in infectious disease and epidemiology modelling. He currently serves as the associate editor of the African Scientific Reports.
Senior Public Health and Digital Health AnalystNigeria
Universal Health care aims to ensure equitable access to quality health services for all who need it without causing financial hardship while digital health has the potential to transform healthcare and accelerate progress towards achieving the goal of universal health by 2030. In resource-poor settings, technology provides new and efficient ways of reducing inefficiencies in the health system by empowering patients, providers, managers, and policymakers with the information and tools they need to manage and strengthen health systems.
However, like many health interventions, harnessing the transforming power of digital health is limited by socio economic determinants of health, referred to as digital divide. In many developing countries, the digital divide limits access to the use of emerging and existing digital technologies. Some of these factors include access to electricity, broadband connectivity, digital literacy, and the cost of data. Globally about 800 million persons do not have access to electricity, and only 1 in 3 persons in developing countries have internet access. Literacy rate is put at 66% in sub-Saharan Africa, and more than one billion persons live in countries where internet is unaffordable.
So, just as achieving health equity requires deliberate effort to ensure that no one is disadvantaged by their circumstances, implementing digital health programs, especially in resource-poor countries, must be inetentional about expanding access. Digital health interventions must remove the underlying obstacles and challenges to accessibility, and focus on tools and applications that will drive equitable, inclusive, and sustainable transformation of the health systems.
Victoria has a first degree in pharmacology and a post-graduate degree in Public Health (MPH) and Management of Information Technology (M.Sc.). She is a senior public health and digital health analyst with over fifteen years of experience designing and implementing development projects in resource-poor settings. She recently completed a survey digital health that led to the development of a digital health staretgy for some countries and is currently working to evaluate national health financing strategies for primary health care in Nigeria.
Alfaisal UniversitySaudi Arabia
The global impact of COVID-19 pandemic serves as a sharp reminder that infectious diseases can be lethal. An unknown pathogen has begun a new chapter in the history of infectious illnesses. By January 2022, COVID-19 has caused almost 5.9 million deaths globally. Governments must increase public trust in vaccination adoption and address pandemic logistics and awareness. Objectives were to assess the Makkah resident's awareness of impact of COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, to assess the adherence of Makkah residents to MOH health directives on the COVID-19 pandemic. To meet the research objectives, we used a quantitative descriptive approach (cross-sectional study). We collected the data of 378 participants. However, due to errors and discrepancies, we rejected the data of 34 individuals. Therefore, the data of 344 participants were analyzed. The results revealed that 59.3 % of the respondents were females. We Conclude That the residents of Makkah, had a high level of awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority wore masks, kept proper social distances, washed their hands, and used hand sanitizers as directed by the MOH.
Kholod Saleh Fallatah completed the Bachelor degree in Medical Science at Umm-Alquraa University, Saudi Arabia (Makkah Almukarramah) and the Master degree in Public Health (Mass Gathering) college of Medicine. University of Alfaisal, Saudi Arabia (Riyadh). And have a membership of Saudi society of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
R & D Scientist at Seramun Diagnostica Biotechnology Germany
To analyze the role of interdisciplinary ICU rounds in improving the quality of care of obstetric patients with medical comorbidities through review of available literature.
Multidisciplinary rounds can help healthcare workers in different specialties to make analysis and care goals as a team. 1 Multidisciplinary rounds can also play a role in decreasing the duration of hospital stay and readmissions. 2 Patient mortality rates have also been shown to be lower in ICUS that had a Multidisciplinary care team 3. Structured Interdisciplinary Rounds have also been found to be essential in reducing adverse events in medical teaching units. 4 Moreover, Patient-centered collaborative care has been found to improve patient satisfaction in postpartum care. 5
In the United States, severe maternal morbidity affects 52,000 women annually and is currently on the rise. 6 Multidisciplinary teamwork was found to be important in the care of obstetric patients with critical illness. 7 An integrated management model in ICUs can be beneficial in the care of obstetric patients who need intense monitoring.8 However, studies examining the role of multidisciplinary rounds in ICUS in improving the quality of care for obstetric patients with severe medical morbidities could not be found. Researches call for a multidisciplinary approach to caring for obstetric patients with medical conditions as cases are sophisticated and beyond the bounds of obstetric care. 9
Methods and materials
A systematic literature search was conducted up to June 2023. Our search strategy was using keywords and Synonyms. No exclusion criteria.
Multidisciplinary rounds have been shown to reduce duration of hospital stay and readmissions 1. In ICUs, multidisciplinary rounds have even been shown to reduce patient length of stay by 1.1 - 2.2 days per admission. 2 Moreover, after multidisciplinary rounds were put in effect, 30 days readmission of patients dropped from 27.6% to 17.22%. 2 Multidisciplinary care teams can play a role in decreasing the Mortality rate of admitted patients (OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.76–0.93, p=0.001). 10 However, studies on the role of multidisciplinary rounds in ICUS in improving the quality of care for obstetric patients with severe medical morbidities could not be found.
As evidenced by decreased hospital stay length and readmission rates, multidisciplinary rounds may play an important role in improving patient outcomes. Studies have shown a decrease in adverse events after implementing interdisciplinary rounds. This shows that multidisciplinary rounds may have tremendous potential to improve care of obstetric patients with severe medical complications in ICUs. However, studies that focus on the effect of multidisciplinary rounds on the care of obstetric patients with medical complications are minimal if not absent. With the increased numbers of obstetric patients with medical complications needing ICU care, more studies should be done to understand the role of multidisciplinary rounds in improving the care and survival of obstetric patients with medical complications.
Immunologist,Certified, Drug Safety Officer,Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials Specialist. Served as a Scientist at Seramun Diagnostica Biotechnology Company in the Dept.of Research and Development in the field of Immunoassay.Completed PhD from Charite’-University of Medicine Berlin, Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Internal Medicine Dept. of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology; German Rheumatology Research Center Berlin; Institute for Immunology, Center for Infection Medicine of Freie University Berlin. Ambassador of Brain City Berlin for Science and Technology. Diaspora Expert for Developing Countries in relation to health, education, research and consultation. Co-advisor and lecturer for Master and PhD students & lecturer of undergraduate students in different Ethiopian Universities. Ambassador of Tedda Health Science College in Gonder/ Ethiopia. Board Member of Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology EiTEX & Biorefinery Research Center (BRRC of EiTEX) in Bahir Dar University-Ethiopia, Board Member & Co-Founder and General Secretary of International Verein für Gesundheitsförderung in Äthiopien (IVGFÄ) at Germany. Vice-President of Bridge Ethiopia Network for Science and Technology (BE-NeST) in Germany. Auditor of German Society for Lupus Research Society/ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Lupus Forschung (DGLF) e,V.in Berlin-Germany.
Immunologist,Certified, Drug Safety Officer,Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials Specialist.Currently working at Seramun Diagnostica Biotechnology Company in the Dept.of Research and Development as a Research & Development Scientist in the field of Immunoassay.Completed PhD from Charite’-University of Medicine Berlin, Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Internal Medicine Dept. of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology; German Rheumatology Research Center Berlin; Institute for Immunology, Center for Infection Medicine of Freie University Berlin. Ambassador of Brain City Berlin for Science and Technology. Diaspora Expert for Developing Countries in relation to health, education, research and consultation. Co-advisor and lecturer for Master and PhD students & lecturer of undergraduate students in different Ethiopian Universities. Ambassador of Tedda Health Science College in Gonder/ Ethiopia. Board Member of Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology EiTEX & Biorefinery Research Center (BRRC of EiTEX) in Bahir Dar University-Ethiopia, Board Member & Co-Founder and General Secretary of International Verein für Gesundheitsförderung in Äthiopien (IVGFÄ) at Germany. Vice-President of Bridge Ethiopia Network for Science and Technology (BE-NeST) in Germany. Auditor of German Society for Lupus Research Society/ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Lupus Forschung (DGLF) e,V.in Berlin-Germany.
Doctor of Public Health Student Claremont Graduate University USA
The opioid problem in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, wreaking havoc on public health. This presentation describes a programmatic intervention aimed at improving health outcomes and lowering the prevalence of opioid addiction in the general population. The intervention adopts a tiered method that addresses individual and population-level opioid health concerns, drawing on social-ecological and life-course models. It considers the negative physical and mental health consequences of opioid use and misuse. The intervention tries to alleviate the adverse effects of the opioid crisis by focusing on socioeconomic factors and employing various program techniques, such as medication-assisted therapy, harm reduction programs, and holistic treatment approaches.
A causal architecture approach is used to uncover the root reasons and processes contributing to the pandemic, allowing for the development of multilayer solutions. The program's impact on health outcomes will be measured by key metrics such as decreased opioid use and overdose rates, increased access to addiction treatment and mental health services, and improvements in social and economic variables.
A complete cost-benefit analysis will also be performed to determine the program's cost- effectiveness, considering the program's expenses and the advantages of improved health outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Despite limitations such as limited resources and probable resistance to change, the suggested program offers a complete and individualized strategy for addressing the opioid problem and improving the overall health of affected individuals and communities.
MaryAnn Ngozi Obidike is an enthusiastic professional with a diverse background in public health, organizational development, project management, and community engagement. Currently pursuing a Doctor of Public Health degree in Community and Global Health at Claremont Graduate University in California, USA, she holds an Advanced Certificate in Public Health Foundation and a Master of Science degree in Health Management Psychology. As a United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA) member and United Nations Foundation advocate, MaryAnn is passionate about collaborating with UN agencies to advance health fairness, inclusion, participatory budgeting, and the digital transformation of healthcare services. MaryAnn has held numerous roles, including program evaluation specialist, freelance consultant, organizational development director, humanitarian project manager, state project coordinator, capacity building technical adviser, and volunteer. Her experience spans working with charitable organizations, conducting research, managing projects, and leveraging social influence. MaryAnn excels in policy analysis, fundraising, strategic planning, monitoring and evaluation, humanitarian assistance, and fostering social, health, and economic development. She has a strong background in capacity development, communication, advocacy, and policy formulation, focusing on community-based approaches, sexual reproductive health, HIV/AIDS programming, and human rights. Recognized for her ability to establish robust relationships with diverse stakeholders, including INGOs, funders, board members, individual donors, and staff, MaryAnn is certified in various fields, such As Project Management for Development Professionals, Social and Behavioral Research, HarvardX Pro-Child Protection, Developmental Disabilities, Social Work, Livelihoods, And Markets. MaryAnn's contributions include authoring and presenting reports, conference papers, and abstracts on critical topics like public policy, child protection, HIV&AIDs, and health equity, gender empowerment. Her unwavering dedication to enhancing lives, irrespective of race, ethnicity, color, region, or gender, drives her work.
Background: COVID-19 was a global pandemic, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. COPD has been identified as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, the association between COPD and COVID-19 severity among people with HIV is not well established. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between COPD and COVID-19 severity in people with HIV using data from the 2020 DC Cohort COVID survey (N = 1,972). We used multivariable logistic regression models to analyze the data and calculate prevalence odds ratios and p-values for severe COVID-19 among patients with and without COPD, adjusting for age, sex, gender, asthma, and smoking status. We also investigated interactions for COPD by age, gender, race, age by race, gender, and smoking history, race by gender, and smoking history, and gender by smoking history. Results: Of the 109 people with HIV with COPD included in the study, 0.60% had severe COVID-19. Our results suggest that there is no statistically significant association between COPD status and severe COVID-19 after adjusting for confounding variables (POR 2.297, p-value>0.646). However, among current smokers, there is a statistically significant association between COPD and severe COVID-19 (POR 24.87, p-value<0.036). Conclusion: Our study provides important insights into the association between COPD and COVID-19 severity in people with HIV. Our findings suggest that current smokers with COPD may have a significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation programs and regular monitoring of COPD in people with HIV to reduce their risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes.
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Health Research & Development/Public Health Papua New Guinea
Introduction: Cancer poses a lifelong burden, accounting for 9.6 million deaths in 2018. However, 30% of cancers are preventable through healthy lifestyle behaviors. Health promotion about cancer risk factors is needed. This research aimed to assess cancer risk factor knowledge among urban (n=130), peri-urban (n=-79) and rural (n=60) high school students in three PNG schools and evaluate the effectiveness of a cancer prevention workshop in the two urban schools.
Method: We conducted pre-workshop surveys among 269 class 9 and 10 students in three schools, and in two urban schools (n=209) conducted a lifestyle and cancer prevention workshop, followed by a postworkshop repeat survey. An additive 12-mark cancer knowledge score was calculated for correct responses to 12 questions for all schools before, and for the two urban intervention schools. Some demographic factors’ associations with pre-intervention knowledge were also explored. Analyses employed ANOVA, t- and 2 -tests. Results: Most, or 79.9% of all students, could not answer any of the 12 questions about cancer and its associated risk factors pre-survey, 75% in the urban schools together, but 91% in the rural school. The pre-survey knowledge scores were only 1.6+3.6 and 1.6+3.5 and 0.15+0.5 out of 12 possible marks in the urban, peri-urban, and rural schools (P=0.007), respectively. Post-workshop, the urban and periurban school knowledge scores rose to 10.7+0.59 and 10.8+3.57 (P<0.001 for increase for both), respectively. Those knowing about cancer heard it from family. Post-intervention, all 209 intervention recipients could name at least one of PNG’s top cancers, a very highly significant (p<0.001) difference from what was known pre-intervention. There was also a correlation between previous school attendance (rural vs urban) and their cancer knowledge.
Conclusion: Urban and particularly rural students had almost no cancer prevention knowledge, but a one-hour workshop was successful among urban students. Cancer advocacy remains a need in PNG high schools. All intervention students later requested that a cancer prevention workshop be conducted for all, even primary level students.
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