Eutilex and Tulane University, South Korea
The blood and lymphatic systems are the two well-established circulatory systems. The existence of a third circulatory system representing acupuncture meridians was claimed in the 1960s. We have revisited the acupuncture meridians, identified the anatomical entity and named the new circulatory network as HAR-NDS HAR-NDS appeared to form a network throughout the body, on the surface of internal organs, inside blood and lymph vessels and along nervous system. The HAR-NDS was covered by a layer of EMP-3-positive spindle-shaped epithelium with, below, a layer of vWF-positive but CD31-negative endothelium. The HAR-NDS on the surface of intestine contained a variety of immune cells, usually enriched with mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and histiocytes as well as chromaffin cells. Secretory granules from mast cells in the node appeared to pass along the ductules, two or more of which made up a duct. We consistently found that ~ 2% of the cells in the node were immature type, and hypothesized that the system might contain pluripotent and committed stem cells. HAR-NDS contained hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), such as granulocytes-macrophage, erythroid, multipotential and mast cell progenitors (MCP). MCPs were the most abundant among the HPCs in the HAR-NDS. Their frequency was fivefold higher than that of the MCPs in bone marrow. The system also contained pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) capable of producing hemangioblast-like cells, which subsequently generated various types of HPCs and differentiated blood cells. We further demonstrated potential PSCs by isolating sca-1+ lin- CD45- small (3.0-5.0μm in diameter) cells. The PSCs were named as “Node and Duct Stem Cells (NDSC)”. NDSCs formed colonies on C2C12 feeders, were positive for fetal alkaline phosphatase, and could the subcultured on the feeders. They were differentiated into neuronal cells in in vitro. Injection of NDSC into mice partially repaired ischemic brain damage. Taken together, we report the discovery of potential adult stem cells that may be involved in an alternative means of blood cell production and tissue regeneration. The HAR-NDS may served as a route that delivers the stem cells to their target tissues.
The Binder Institute for Personalized Medicine, Germany
The realm of Energetics in Medicine is increasingly in demand by physicians and patients alike. Its foundation is as old as human history and with today’s science and technology it is an available modality to integrate into any type of practice. Working with the energy of a human’s body is a standard in diagnostics of all types of medical specialties. Diagnostically we measure pathology with technologies like MRI, EKG, EEG, Ultrasound, Thermography, and more. On the therapeutic side, the use of energetics still is a blank area to many physicians due to the lack of education during their primary education. Reality however proves that patients are demanding less chemical and non-invasive solutions to their chronic illnesses which finally tap into their personalized need and provide the missing link in terms of physics to the chemistry model.
Goals and Objectives:
1. Review of diagnostic and therapeutic energy medicine solutions
2. Overview of easy integration into daily practice
3. Review cases including Cancer, Immune Deficiency Disorders, Eczema, Vascular Disease and an acute injury of 3rd degree burn.
Why this program should be added:
Intelligent high-tech energy medicine solutions in therapeutics and diagnostics, which are based on ancient wisdom, have been the new frontier in medical science and practice around the globe. Although education of physics is still lacking in universities around the world, its use and efficacy especially in chronic disease is increasingly in demand. The only way to learn about the use of Energetics in Medicine is by a second tier educational path. The advanced physician is seeking the missing link to the chemistry model which is discussed here.
University of Montpellier, Montpellier Cancer Institute and Plateforme CEPS Montpellier, France
Non-Pharmacological Interventions (NPIs) are exponentially used for health prevention and care in the world. NPIs can be diets, supplementary foods, health education programs, diseases management protocols, psychotherapies, art therapies, exercise programs, manual therapies, physiotherapy methods, diets, supplementary foods, plant extracts, mushroom products, minerals, non-invasive digital solutions, ergonomic tools. Many of them come from traditional medicines. The global market is estimated between 321 and 3,745 billion euros in 2017, with a 5% growth per year. Patients require improved information, integrity and transparency about their benefits and risks. Health authorities claim better description, indication and professional practice. Health insurances require better evidence of efficiency. To improve the situation, authorities request better quality of intervention research to show benefits and risks, in complement or not with biomedical treatments. The systematic review over two years identifies frameworks for clinical validation and surveillance of NPIs published in English medical and scientific journals. We identified 46 models, inspired by pharmacology, behavioral change, or engineering paradigms. To date, no framework leads in the Western or Eastern world contrary to the well-known 4 phases model dedicated to drugs and adopted 50 years ago by health authorities (FDA, EMA…), or more recently for medical devices. The lack of a consensual NPIs validation and surveillance framework will multiply prescription errors, misuse and deleterious interactions with conventional biotherapies. We need a common framework for NPIs assessment, not just for scientists, but also to ensure patient welfare, better professional practices, and an economic justification for their reimbursement. Three expert meetings and exchanges with clinicians, researchers and decision-makers and patients resulted in a first checklist of methodological invariants for NPIs evaluation. The communication will detail the checklist dedicated to improve the quality of intervention studies assessing NPIs.
University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
The decoding of the human genome has given birth to Systems Medicine, a personalized, holistic, global and integrative approach to biology and medicine. The organism is viewed as an integrated and inter-active network of genes (studied by genomics and transcriptomics), proteins (studied by proteomics) and biochemical reactions (studied by metabolomics) rather than focusing on individual factors. An advantage of Systems Medicine is that it allows the identification of new biomarkers, which are an essential element of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.
Like systems medicine, also Chinese Medicine describes life as a complex, dynamic and nonlinear system. The information of the complex system that is the human body is analysed and condensed in syndromes, which are the cornerstones of diagnosis and individualized treatment. At the macroscopic level, a syndrome is a special phenotype differentiated according to symptoms and signs, for example cold and heat patterns. At a microscopic level, some biomarkers have been identified by functional genomics and can be aggregated into these two syndromes.
The lecture will focus on recent research on different omics to gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of acupuncture and TCM, and how they can influence diagnosis and treatment.
Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
With harmonics of blood pressure, we found the qualitative and quantitative method to measure meridian and designed a pulse diagnosis apparatus. Through this, we could get the pathological and pharmacological matrix to evaluate the biomedical effects.
Besides the pathological condition of patients could be detected, the effects of herbs, drugs and acupuncture also could be analysis. This digital pulse diagnosis apparatus could be a powerful tool for clinic and research.
Aging is the common physiological and pathological process of life. Our studies reveal that the liver meridian (first harmonic) is positive correlated with the age growth, spleen meridian (third harmonic), lung meridian (fourth harmonic) and stomach meridian (fourth harmonic) are negative correlated with the age growth, however, the diastolic and systolic pressure without correlation with aging.
This result provides information that aging is the process that circulation system losing resonance and increasing the load of heart to perfusion of the vital organs or tissues.
The anti-aging herbs might be through the meridian effect to improve the blood perfusion of the vital organs or tissues. We could facilitate the new drugs development of the anti-aging herbs with the meridian effect screen.
University of Pécs, Hungary
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether acupuncture, especially Yamamoto’s New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA), is of value in additional to standard poststroke motor rehabilitation.
DESIGN: A prospective, assessor-blinded randomized control trial was carried out in an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit with day hospital service. After inclusion, patients were stratiﬁed into control group and acu-puncture group, randomly.
OUTCOME MEASURES: The Barthel Index, the Rivermead Scale Index, and the Visual Analogue Scale were used to follow the efﬁcacy of treatment.
RESULTS: In the acupuncture group, all the sensory, motor, and functional scores improved signiﬁcantly during the examination period until 2 years after injury. The Barthel Index is increased from 4–2 to 95 –4 in the acupuncture group. This index also increased in the control group (from 4–2 to 75 -4), but the changes were signiﬁcantly less than in the acupuncture group. A signiﬁcant spontaneous recovery during the 2-year follow-up was found, but the YNSA treatment facilitated the functional recovery. Improved moving function and more ﬂexible joints and ligaments were observed in comparison to the patients’ condition prior to treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the YNSA is a useful method to treat stroke patients and enhance their quality of life. We applied this method for handicapped children too since 1997 and our data proved to be safe and valuable method of YNSA techniques.
College of Medicine and Health Sciences, National University of Science and Technology
Sultanate of Oman
Ayurveda is one of the oldest of the traditional systems of medicine recognised globally. It is a comprehensive scientific medicinal system indigenous to India. It is exteremely intresting to find the correlation of documents written 3000 years ago with the current day happenings of communicable diseases .It compels us to accept that there is room for exploration of this ancient wisdom which could lead to finding new avenues in finding herbal remedies to drug resistant infections. Modern medicine are infact built on the principles of evidence based practices. Hence the lack of understanding the connect between the traditional and newer evolving paradigms is the major hurdle in motivating implementation and research in Ayurveda. In the current era, where holistic treatment approach is much emphasised we must realise that we should reconsider the ancient ayurvedic practices that are inherent, rich, complex, compatible, sustainable and natural. Only with deeper insights into expolring,comparing and mapping the traditional practices with infectious diseases of the past to the modern day health care incidences, it would be possible to incorporate the positive benefits of ayurveda. The possibilities that it can to be used as a complementary therapy to combat modern day issues in infectious diseases management like antibiotic resistance and preventing emergence of newer unconventional organisms should be explored . Evolution of heath care practice will be directed to an upsurge if interprofessional health care practicioners are encouraged to discuss current opportunities and challenges of an integrative approach towards ayurveda . Evidence based incorporation of Indian traditional medicine in Integrated health care practice will promote holistic healthcare to all.
Department of Chemistry Engineering, I-Shou University
Republic of China
Supercritical fluid Extraction (SFE) is recognized as a green technology and widely applied in natural products. In this study, we have finished the extraction of fruiting bodies of Ganoderma and Antrodia cinnamomea by the SFE. The crude extract is rich of triterpenoids and contains impurities. A novel continuous chromatography, a combination of supercritical fluid and simulated moving bed chromatography(abbreviated as SF-SMB), is selected to separate the triterpenoids and the impurities in this study. The SFE has a 5-L extractor, and it can reach 500 bar. The SF-SMB has six packed columns and been designed as a three-section SMB without recycling the carbon dioxide. Effects of operating conditions on the extraction and chromatography are investigated. Experimental results from the SFE reveals that triterpenoids can be totally extracted from the medicinal mushrooms as compared with that from ethanol extraction. Additionally, the content of a particular triterpenoid in the crude extract can be increased from 3~5% up to 50% by the SF-SMB. The two-step process will simplify the processes for triterpenoids production and reduce both the energy consumption and the wastes. Since the SF-SMB has been successfully applied to the separation of EPA-EE(ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid) from fish oil in Taiwan and CBD(Cannabidiol) from hemp plant in USA, the applications of SF-SMB to the bioactive ingredients will be forseeable in the near future.
The University of Chicago, United states
Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has been increasingly prevalent among Americans despite the fact that patients need to incur substantive out-of-pocket payment for the use of CAM because it is not commonly covered by health insurance. Given their limited resources, patients often have to make the difficult decision between the use of CAM and the use of other sorts of medical care. Little is known about the association between the use of CAM and cost-related non-adherence (CRN) to medical care in general or about the specific modalities of CAM use. We aimed to assess the differential association between the modalities of CAM use and CRN among older Americans.
Study Design: Older Americans (age of 50 or above) in the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were included to evaluate the use of CAM modalities and their association with CRN. CAM modalities were categorized as the use of the following in the past 12 months: 1) herbal supplements; 2) chiropractic of osteopathic manipulations; 3) massage; 4) Yoga, tai chi, or qigong; 5) Mantra/mindfulness/spiritual meditation, 6) acupuncture; 7) mind-body therapy; and 8) other CAM modalities including homeopathy, naturopathy, traditional healers, energy healing therapy, biofeedback, hypnosis, and craniosacral therapy. CRN was defined as needing medical care but not receiving it due to costs and/or having medical care delayed due to costs in the past 12 months. We developed a multivariable logit model to assess the association of the use of CAM modalities and CRN controlling for patients age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance status (Medicare, Medicaid, VA/Tri-care, no-insurance, or private insurance), and comorbid conditions (diabetes, arthritis, back and neck problems, heart condition, stroke, lung and breathing problems, and cancer).
Results: 16,360 older Americans were included in the analysis, with 5,082 (31%) reporting at least 1 CAM modality use. Among the 8 CAM modalities, compared to those not using CAM, those who used chiropractic were 94% more likely (p=0.01), those who used Mantra/mindfulness/spiritual meditation were 106% more likely (p<0.01), and those use other modalities were 42% more likely (p=0.07) to report CRN. In contrast, those who used mind-body therapy were 43% less likely (p=0.04) to report CRN. The other 4 modalities did not achieve statistically significant level although the odd ratios were mostly greater than 1.
Discussion and conclusion: The differential association between the CAM modality use and CRN suggested a complex relationship between the utilization of CAM and patients’ non-adherence to medical care. It is possible that the out-of-pocket payments for those services significantly increased patients’ cost burden and thus made the use of other medical care unaffordable, and it’s also possible that those who already had low resources were more likely to seek CAM to substitute for more expensive conventional care. Both scenarios would present serious challenges. More research is greatly needed to understand the complex fabric of this relationship and improve the access to and effectiveness of health care.
Taipei City Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan
In recent decades, TCM has raised western world’s attention for its efficacy from acupuncture to Chinese herbal medicines. More and more research focused on applying TCM in cancer care, autoimmune disease, and so on for the mainstream medicine has its limitations regarding the side effects or seeking for mote potential effect from TCM.
Theoretically, Chinese Medicine emphasize holism and many effective Chinese decoctions were complex and has synergetic effect in combating the disease, which through adjusting yin-yang; qi-blood; deficiency/excess based on TCM theory. Nevertheless, Western medicine focus on reductionism and each drug could be described clearly about the mechanism it exerts on and also take care about the interaction or drug-drug reaction.
As the precision medicine is hot in recent years, we also note that TCM has its role in this part. From one perspective, Chinese herbs could be potential stars as many of their components are potential and need more deep study to define the mechanism and connecting with the precision medicien.
On the opposite, there is a gap between cross talking between in Chinese medicine and western medicine for differential medical and culture background and difficulty in evaluating ancient formula with modern laboratory method.
To apply TCM in precision, we need to discuss where the potentials and limitations exist and know how to cross-talking under different oriental and western scenarios and make the connection possible.
Central Ayurveda Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Disorders, Ministry of AYUSH
BACKGROUND: T2DM is generally considered as a chronic, incurable, progressive and lifelong disease condition. Primary focuses of our managements are to control blood sugar and management of complications. However T2DM remission can be achieved in certain individual through Ayurveda procedure and medication without lifestyle intervention. Current evidences of T2DM remission by two key approaches namely Bariatric surgery and intensive life style management. But alternative cure procedures were not tested more. The Ayurvedic understanding of diabetes is comparable with Ikshu meha and Madhu meha. Ikshu meha is curable as Kaphaja Prameha and Madhu meha is not curable as Vataja Prameha.
AIMS: The hypothesis was tested whether Ayurveda procedure and medication indicated in Kaphja prameha can remission diabetes as per the definition of the American Diabetes Association (ADA).
METHODS: Five people (Three male and two female) with newly diagnosed T2DM were initially subjected to Vaman ( one of the procedure for Kapha dosa) then Ayurveda medication as per their Prakruti ( Body constitution) and other subjective parameter including BMI. When plasma glucose was < 120mg/dl and HbA1C< 6.5% then the medication reduced for three months and thereafter stopped. The patients were followed for a period of minimum two years.
RESULTS: The remission at 3 months, six months, one year and two years were noted in all subjects without life style intervention.
CONCLUSION: Complete remission of T2DM in newly diagnosed diabetic cases can be possible through Ayurveda procedure and medication. Prospective study is recommended.
Ma Lang Neurology and Chinese Medicine Clinic, Republic of China
Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplastic vascular disorder. It usually present on the skin of the upper and lower extremities, rarely in the mucosa of the head and neck. The FDA-approved treatment modalities for KS have not changed in 20 years. New approaches to Kaposi Sarcoma are under development. We present a case with complete clinical response using only Chinese Medicine therapy treatment. A 59-year-old Taiwanese man with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection presented with a painful widespread dermatosis with maculopapular, nodular, violaceous lesions on his his feet. A biopsy confirmed the lesions as classic Kaposi's sarcoma.Chinese Medicine treatment was delivered.He had complete clinical response within 12 months of follow-up. This is an unusual case since it is uncommon to use Chinese Meicine therapy as the single treatment in Kaposi's sarcoma; the efficacy of the treatment is shown in the impact in our patient's recurrence-free survial ,local control and palliation of our patient's symptoms.
China Medical University, Taiwan
In the previous research, we have determined the most commonly used formula and single herb for Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) in Taiwan, respectively, using the cases where traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients’ condition from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). TCM has recently been recognized for its potential therapeutic benefits in SS. The BioMAP profiling has been employed in many researches to determine the profile of compounds in complex primary human cell systems and to obtain the characterization of compound mechanisms and secondary activities. The analysis of bioactivities in each BioMAP assay systems were employed to determine the profile of a TCM formula in more complex primary human cell systems using different concentration across 12 BioMAP Systems. We also aimed to employ outpatient clinics of SS to receive TCM treatment vs. placebo were conducted in this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome was Schirmer’s test, while secondary outcome were ESSPRI, SSDQ, OSDI, sialoscintigraphy and artificial tear usage before and after treatment. In order to determine the potential target proteins for the formula, MetaCore analysis was employed to select the associated proteins. Hence, we developed a virtual screening study for each associated protein, and also performed molecular dynamics simulations on these associated proteins. We investigated the molecular docking of these proteins with compounds from the TCM formula.
Tzu Chi University, Taiwan
2,3,4’,5-tetrahydroxystilbene- 2-O-β-d-glucoside (THSG) has been shown to have antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects on inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a world-wide problem of people working in industry and serving in the military. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NIHL. This was the first study to investigate the THSG mechanism of protection of sensorineural hearing loss using normal mouse cochlear epithelium (organ of Corti) cell (UB-OC-2) in vitro. Western Blotting was performed for autophagy and apoptosis related proteins analysis. Annexin V/PI staining using flow-cytometer was performed for the detection of apoptosis cells.
THSG possessed the ability to attenuate DPPH free radical and was similar as ascorbic acid. THSG protected against the H2O2 damage to reduce cleaved caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP. We therefore tested whether THSG could protect UB/OC2 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis by Annexin V/PI staining. Moreover, JC-1 staining showed that THSG might have the ability to protect mitochondrial and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential in H2O2-induced free radical damage in UB/OC2 cells.THSG possessed the ability to attenuate free radical as a scavenging agent directly. THSG also protected UB/OC2 cell from H2O2-induced autophagy and apoptosis in vitro. THSG might also have the ability to protect mitochondrial and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential against H2O2-induced mitochondrial-related cell death.
Department of Traditional Medicine Services,
Ministry of Health, Thimphu, Bhutan
The Bhutanese Traditional Medicine is a composition of science, art, philosophy, and religion, one closely depending upon the other. It has its own concepts of the composition of the universe and body, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology. It has its unique way of diagnosing diseases and treating them. Therefore, physicians of Bhutanese Traditional Medicine are considered to be an epitome of physical, mental and spiritual virtues. In the present work, an effort has been made to give an exposition of important aspects of this health science. Under the visionary leadership of Their Majesties the Kings and as guided by the WHO TM Framework, Bhutanese Traditional Medicine has maintained a steady growth and has adopted modern approaches without losing the indigenous value/knowledge. In a world where traditional knowledge is inadvertently put aside, Bhutan enjoys a unique situation. It has not only been able to adjust with the challenges of globalization but has also managed to seize many of its opportunities. The maintenance of Traditional Medicine not only adds dimensions to the nation’s system of health care but provides an alternative choice of health care services.
It has its unique specialty such as holistic approach, side benefit instead of side effect, non-toxic nature, natural ingredients, interdependence of Microcosm and Macrocosm and faith in Karma.
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Tehran, Iran
The nature mother has gifted the human race with valuable resource and herbs have diferens usege. Natural products provide unlimited opportunities for contain various types of mattereal e.g. bioactive compounds and new drug,pest control and antioxidant because of the chemical diversity interest particularly in aromatic plants, usage and demand of different herbs has grown throughout the world. Herbal preparations for any type contain various types of compounds. The benefits of aromatic plants extract and essential oils have been used in perfume, soap, food industry and remedy purposes since ancient time. The Persian physician Avicenna (980 - 1,037 AD) that is being credited with perfecting the distillation process of essential oils found in the seeds, bark, stems, roots, flowers of plants. This valuable compound are gives plant can protection against diseases in plants. Essential oils are non-water-based phytochemicals made up of terpenoid compounds. Iran has hi ranks in medicinal and aromatic plant in natural resource and cultivated manner, traditional knowledge and producing of natural products in the world spatially in Middle East. Iran also is very famous in producing essential oil and water extraction from national plants spatially Rosa damacena, Neem and Aloe spp. Neem tree is one of the pinnacle resources among them. All essential oil samples were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main composition of oil extracted traditionally, samples were extracted by two hydro distillation method which designed by authors in Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. The analysis of solvent extracts and investigates bioactive compounds needed, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC and other facility in lab. Then sample were analayz and find it citronellol, cis-p-menth -2-en-1-ol and geraniol in Rosa damecena. In the neem plants Azadirachtin, is biochemical molecule which is used and recommended worldwide as a technical material for formulation of organic agricultural. Aloe spp, e.g.aloe vera, according to W. A. Shenstone, two classes of aloins are recognized: (1) nataloins, and barbaloins, for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics. These compounds and others are very popular in producing drug and effects as anti-cancer, anti-bacterial out of that and we should take care of over doses or toxicology. Iran, on herbal played a key role in connecting various cultures and civilizations. The focus of this paper is on the methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in herbal preparations.
The Sawiak Integrative Wellness institute, Canada
Dentistry is considered a heath profession. Until WWII, in many countries, it was a specialty of medicine. Now, in many areas of the world, it has unfortunately deteriorated into “tooth carpentry” and toxic procedures that can, and do affect health negatively. From mercury, aluminum, nickel and palladium used in dental materials to fluoridation of water; From blocking meridians with dead teeth, to metal toxicity of implants.; From removing teeth incompletely to ignoring infections raging in the jawbone. From using ineffective procedures to not maintaining periodontal (gum) health, to failing the growing child in developing a balanced, beautiful face and occlusion.
Misuse and overuse of pharmaceutical medications, incorrect diagnoses in periodontal issues and invasive procedures like root canals, jaw position corrections and poor diagnosis of tooth vitality have led to many “mystery syndromes such as chronic fatigue, Crohn”s disease, Multiple Sclerosis, brain fog, cancer and Alzheimer’s to name a few.
When dentistry is approached in an integrative way, the procedures, tools, medications and prevention take on a new meaning and context. Because the teeth, gums and jaws are an essential part of our body, we must look at the treatment of them in an integrative, inclusive fashion with the whole person and body in mind.
National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
With eyes closed and mind inwards, Zen-meditation practitioners fully concentrate their mind and spirit inside the body, pinpointing deeply to Mailuns that mostly locate in the gland, nerve plexus, or organ tissues. Zen-meditation practitioners shut down outward attention and initiate ten-Mailun system to reform the brain and revitalize the physical body. Ten-mailuns system, the new spiritual anatomy in human body, possesses ultimate prevention ability and therapeutic efficacy. Among ten Mailuns, the topmost Mailun, ChanXin, locates inside the third ventricle of the interbrain. By intensively continuous focus on ChanXin, some exclusively photoelectric energy surges from the third ventricle and propagates throughout the entire brain to harmonize all the brain neurons in the way that brain becomes more tranquil and pure at every moment. Accordingly, our brain and mind can be cleansed and reformed into a detached brain manifested in Diamond Sutra. More than merely brain-neuroplasticity, ten-Mailun Zen meditation completely changes the normal brain traits and regenerates a new brain with superior self-healing capabilities that may provide valuable insight into its potential treatments for various physical, psychological and mental ailments. Scientific evidences disclosed in our group include 1) global gamma in EEG (electroencephalograph), 2) decreasing DMN (default-mode-network) activities, 3) stationary and stronger interconnectivity among frontal midline (Fz, FCz, and Cz) regional neural oscillators, 4) rather deeper EEG focalization, and 5) prominent cardiorespiratory synchronization during deep Zen meditation, in comparison with ordinary, healthy controls at rest. Our results provide evidences for brain functioning reformation and strengthened heart-brain intervention through long-term ten-Mailun Zen-meditation practice.
Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
Retinal diseases such as glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and many others represent a worldwide problem of relevant degenerative vision deficits. Since multiple factors including dysregulated neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and cellular death (apoptosis/necroptosis) were involved, the mechanisms of treatments were diverse in different retinal diseases. However, the majority of therapies were palliative treatments, exception of gene therapy, little of them capable to halt the underlying pathological progression. In fact, the herbal treatments of ophthalmic diseases were prescribed by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), according to the medical books as “Win Hai Ching Wei” and “Bencao Gangmu”. Cassia seed (Jue Ming Zi, Cassia toro) is widely used to treat ophthalmic complications. Recently, we found its active component, chrysophanol, improved the functional and morphological features of MNU-induced RP-like retinal degeneration using scotopic electroretinography (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). It attenuated photoreceptor cell apoptosis, expression of apoptotic effectors and c-Jun phosphorylation. In addition, it ameliorated reactive gliosis and MMP-9 activation in retina. These results shown that chrysophanol provided retinoprotective effects through inhibition of apoptosis and glial activation. We also found the natural fungal component, theissenolactone C (LC53), extracted from Theisseno cinerea (Xylariaceae). Some species categorized in the genus Xylaria have been used in TCM. LC53 preserved the retina functional deficiency after glaucoma induction by high IOP. This component could attenuate ocular MMP-9 activation and expression in retina. Furthermore, LC53 significantly abrogated stimulation of MMP-9 activation by glaucoma-related cytokines through NF-B inhibition in monocytic cells and astrocytes. In summary, it strongly revealed the multiple target properties of TCM and their components, be potential in prevention and treatment of the retinodegenerative diseases.
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
The progression of nasal polyps can obstruct the ostium of sinuses and result in consequent sinusitis. Medical therapy has limited effect and often, endoscopic sinus surgery to remove nasal polyps for improving sinus ventilation is effective treatment. However, high recurrence of nasal polyp remains a challenging issue, which needs breakthrough to improve the therapeutic outcomes. Recently, we developed a novel therapy by using nasal irrigation with herbal extract for treating chronic rhinitis and sinusitis in clinic. The nasal cavity is physically cleaned by nasal irrigation and the residual licorice solution on mucosa can provide continuous treatment. According to the results of clinical trial, the therapeutic efficacy was very effective, highly accepted by patients, and considerably safe. During the clinical trial, we found that the herbal nasal irrigation therapy significantly caused size-reduction and superficial vascular regression of nasal polyps in a part of patients and the improvement could persist under keeping treatment for nasal care. Herbal irrigation nasal therapy (HINT) is potential to be a breakthough in treating chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps and is worthy of widspread promotion.
Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan ROC
Tai Chi Chuan is an ancient Chinese secret for optimal aging and well-being based on theory of yin-yang, meridians and collaterals of Chinese medicine. Positive effects of Tai Chi practice have been summarized. The term Tai Chi- Meditative movement therapy (TCMMT) has been used for acknowledging the benefits for health. With a healthy body, strong heart and sharp mind being the result of Tai Chi practice, however, the underlying mechanism of health enhancement is unclear. Applying hydraulics to human physiology has been proposed, as blood vessels deliver essential nutrients for cellular metabolic exchange throughout the body. We propose that the hydraulic system instead of muscle movements mainly contribute to benefits of TCMMT. As a body-mind-spirit exercise for reaching a calm state of mind, TCMMT helps the body to reach deep relaxation of all fascial structures (e.g. joint tendon, muscles, interstitial membranes, skin…). In such condition, a lowered body position would induce increased ground forces for body fluid to be pushed throughout the body. In addition to the application of hydraulics mechanism and fascial structures, understanding anatomical basis of meridians and collaterals is also crucial for more effective TCMMT training. We formed a research team to have (1) a clinical application of a specific, simplified version of Cheng Tzu’s Tai Chi, including Tai Chi mind-body principles and guidelines for Tai Chi practice; (2) a kinematic and kinetic study in order to develop specific tools for helping the public to learn this TCMMT.
Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), India
Traditional knowledge is the age-old practices of a community associated with its survival. There are thousands of human communities on the earth and each and every community has their own skill and age-old practices in several walks of life like food, medicine, dance, sports, agriculture, costumes etc. Ethnomedicobotany is one of the tools that help to deal with the direct relationship of plants and man to prevent and cure ailments. The indigenous medicinal plants grown in the North–East India are useful folk medicines used by the people of this region. Therefore, we have devised a cross cultural ethnopharmacological survey on traditional healthcare practices of North-East India. During our survey in Manipur and Sikkim states of North-East India we have documented for 89 traditional practitioners in all nine districts of Manipur and 11 traditional practitioners in two districts of Sikkim. The record of traditional knowledge on 1223 different formulations used for 67 different human and animal ailments in Manipur and 27 formulations used for 20 human ailments in Sikkim were enacted from these surveys. After having generated a large database, our initial focus was for pharmacological evaluation of selected formulations for their effectiveness against human ailments as claimed by the local healers and identified promising therapeutic agents. In course of this survey, several manuscripts, photographs of stone inscriptions, copper plates and ancient therapeutic protocol “Sida Hidak Taret” has also been collected. This strategic research approach will help for sustainable development of the indigenous healthcare practices of North-East India.
Health and Wellness Center, United States
Traditional Dentistry and Medicine has been relegated to diagnosing symptoms and Signs. Addressing structural repairs and restoring function is the major goal. A Bioenergetic approach to illness dates back over 120 year BC. Homeopathy has awaken natural practitioners on cellular frequencies of every organ and living tissues in the brain and body. With the advent of Biofeedback instrumentation, one is now able to imitate the principle of Homeopathy, Chinese 5 element law and meridians and use frequencies to balance distorted cell vibrations in any
living tissue and naturally restore the health of the body. Utilizing the concept of the Chakra system, one is able to categorize every element both internal and environmental to a relationships of adjunctive elements. Energy radiating from a Spiritual, Mental and Emotional are tuned to prevent physical disorders and dysfunction from happening. Healing accelerates with few side effects and pain.
The CAUSE of the illness is now revealed and frequencies of natural supplements, selective exercises, composing contemplation, and savvy nutrition are indicated by this feedback device. We now have a program that helps assess patient’s illness; detects the CAUSE; balance acute and chronic inflammation and monitors its prognosis. There is no known side effects.
Tzu Chi University, Taiwan
Glioblastoma stem cells show radioresistance exposuring under radioation treatment. Base on the concept that exosomes play a critical role as cancer communicasomes, cancer stem cell-derived exosomes were purified and delivered to non-cancer stem cells. Our study demonstrates that stem cell-derived exosomes deliver SOX2 and convert radiosensitized non-stem cells to radioresistance. Further, exosmal miRNA analysis was perofrmed to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in glioblastoma stem cells. MiR106b-5p, the miRNA shows a low expression in stem cell-derived exosome, has the conserved binding site located at 3’UTR region of Sox2. Mimic miR106b-5p suppresses SOX2 expression to confer the attenuation of SOX2-mediated radioresistance in GBM stem cells but reverse by miR106b-5p inhibitor. In addition, a small molecule drug EF-003 which suppresses SOX2 expression and decreases radioresistance in GBM stem cells had also increased miR106b-5p.
In order to determine its significant from clinical aspect, six brain tumor tissues and tumor stem cell lines from recurrent GBM patients which are therapeutic radioresistance were examined. It demonstrates that not only most GBM cell expressed low level of miR106b-5p but also EF-003 modulats miR106b-5p expression, which is associted with regulating SOX2 expression and radioresistance in GBM stem cells. In addition, the radioresistance of CD133-positive glioma stem cells, as well as delivering cancer stem-derived exosomes, reperesent activation of DNA damage check point kincases Chk1, Chk2, ATM and rad17. It can be reversed with a specific inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases and suppression of SOX2 expression.
These findings proposed a potential mechanism where miR106b-5p/SOX2 radioresistance pathway verifies in recurrent GBM patient-derived primary stem cells mediated by exosomes propagation. The results might contribute to new therapeutic approach for recurrent GBM patient.
National Yang-Ming University and iRestore Laser Corp., Taiwan
When it came to the meridian (脈) concept from ancient Chinese medicine , there were two different factions. On the one hand, scholars such as Fang-Pey Chen(陳芳佩) considered meridians as systems similar to blood vessels(衇), and many literatures supported this point of view. On the other hand, Cheng-Zhong Liu(劉澄中) compared the designs of ancient acupuncture dolls, Shiyi Mai Jiu Jing(十一脈灸經), and the results of later studies. They positioned meridian as channels of energy and sensation.
The presenter proposes the Qu's hypothesis, which includes the base of these two concepts, and explained the possible reasons causing the diversities between them.
Among recent meridian energy studies, laser acupuncture is a popular tool to modify the energy status of a human body. However, it is always considered as a tonifying method because of its energy input of light. Actually, in some published studies evaluated by Ryodoraku ,their Ryodoraku values decreased by the laser acupuncture. There are several possible reasons for this phenomenon. As an experimenter of laser acupuncture, Qu notices the supplementation, the draining and the homeostasis within meridian energy in laser acupuncture therapies. Such findings not only explain the results of some studies, but also show the importance of grouping methods selected in meridian-related studies.
Nowadays the rehabilitation focused on strengthening muscles to protect the related joint from damages. While related joints were temporarily protected because of localized muscle bracing effects, individuals always ended up acquiring more and more variety of exercise to keep their whole bodies function smoothly.
As an experienced Taichi martial art coach who mastered in medical engineering, Qu notices amazing coincidence between the Chinese martial art and the concepts of traditional meridian therapy. Physical rehabilitation can be more efficiently executed if individuals have clear and simple principles to follow. More details will be presented in the lecture and some exercises following the same principles will be shared with the audience.
University of Taipei, Taiwan
Background: Foot reflexology massage (FRM) has positive effects on cardiovascular and haemodynamic functions. However, information regarding the physiological changes after FRM post exercise-stress is limited. This study investigated the acute effects of FRM on heart rate variability (HRV) after the Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA) test and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YY).
Methods: Twenty-six collegiate male football players were randomly assigned to the FRM group (n = 14) or to the control group (n = 12). Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals were recorded for 15 min in supine position before and after the intervention/control period in the RSA test and the YY test.
Results: In comparison to the control group, the FRM group demonstrated higher values of root mean squared successive difference in the RR interval (RMSSD; p = 0.046, ES = 0.76) and in the proportion of differences of adjacent RR intervals >50 ms (pNN50; p = 0.031, ES = 0.87); and higher percent changes in mean RR interval (%MeanRR; p = 0.040, ES = 0.99), standard deviation of RR intervals (%SDNN; p = 0.008, ES = 1.10), normalised high-frequency power (%nHFP; p = 0.008, ES = 0.77), total power (%TP; p = 0.009, ES = 0.84), and standard deviation 1 and 2 (%SD1; p = 0.008, ES = 1.08, %SD2; p = 0.020, ES = 1.04) after the RSA test. The magnitude effect of post-exercise HRV was small after the FRM RSA protocol (ES = 0.32-0.57). Conversely, the results demonstrated a moderate and large magnitude effect of HRV in the RSA and YY protocols of the control group (ES: RSA = 1.07-2.00; YY = 0.81-1.61) and in the YY protocol of the FRM group (ES = 0.99-1.59).
Conclusion: The FRM intervention resulted in beneficial effects on the cardiac parasympathetic reactivity and the sympatho-vagal balance after RSA performance.
Fo-Guang University, Taiwan
Background: Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is beneficial to the health of its practitioners. This study explored the effect of a single session of TCC practice on lipid and glucose metabolism and endothelial function in TCC practitioners.
Methods: Twenty-one TCC practitioners and nineteen healthy controls were included in this study. Classical Yang's TCC was practiced by the TCC practitioners. The blood pressures, serum insulin, indices of insulin resistance/sensitivity, serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), and blood lipids before and 30 min after a rest or a session of classical Yang's TCC were compared. .
Results: Before TCC or resting, the insulin level, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and log(HOMA-IR) of the TCC practitioners were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects, while the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) of the TCC practitioners was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects. The percentage changes in the serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), QUICKI and ET-1 were all significantly decreased, whereas the percentage changes in fasting blood sugar, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly increased in the TCC group 30 min after TCC practice, as compared to those in the control group 30 min after a rest. .
Conclusion: The effects of TCC practice shortly after the TCC practice are a significant increase in serum insulin level and insulin resistance, and a significant decrease in serum TC, HDL-C, ET-1 and insulin sensitivity in TCC practitioners. TCC might benefit the health of TCC practitioners through the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolisms and the endothelial function
Southern Medical University, China
Fasciology theory is proposed in the process of studying the anatomical nature of human meridians by the method of digital anatomy. In the following ten years of research, a relatively perfect disciplinary system was gradually formed. The main scientific support points are as follows. Scientific breakthrough: the two-system theory of human body structure----the human body is composed of two parts: the first one is soft stent formed by non-specific connective tissue (loose connective tissue and adipose tissue) throughout the body, and the second one various kinds of already differentiated functional cells which supported and surrounded by the stent. The former is called the supporting and storing system; the latter is called the functional system. The study of relationship, mutual influence, and mutual regulation between the two systems is called fasciology. It also mean that in the subsequent applied research, the main research object is focus on the "fascia." Fascia is the core of research, so the definition of fasciology has both meanings. Fascia has achieved a breakthrough in "body-viewing and methodology." The human body holistic view of the two-system theory realizes the simplification of the complex human body. He is closer to the essence of the human body, which brings us closer to understanding the fundamentals of our human body: the coverage of the two-system theory is compared with the two previous human body views (systematic anatomy and regional anatomy) is more extensive, covering single germinal organisms to most of the organisms (and even some plants).
Panjab University, India
Diabetic nociceptive pain is a protective mechanism that warns us of imminent or actual tissue injury, and elicits several responses to keep the damage in check. However, when tissue injury does occur, it often leads to an abnormal sensory phenotype in the nervous system that causes profound hypersensitivity. Current pharmacotherapeutics for neuropathic pain offer only symptomatic relief without treating the underlying pathophysiology. Additionally, they are associated with various dose-limiting side effects. Phytopharamceutical or plant based drugs are being tried as protective strategies against diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy pain due to its pleiotropic action. Pain research in the past few decades has revolved around the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress, protein kinases, glial cell activation, and inflammatory signaling cascades but has failed to produce specific and effective therapies. During chronic neuropathic pain, maladaptation occurs in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including a shift in microglial phenotype from a surveillance state to an activated state. Various pathways are involved in the progression of the diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy but recent advances points towards neuroinflammatory and oxidative pathways as areas of major concern in the pathogenesis of these complications. Nrf2 Pathway plays a key connexion in progression of diabetic complications. Specific targeting of these cellular and molecular mechanisms may provide the key to development of effective management of neuropathic pain.
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Adenosine exhibits somnogenic effect, however, there is no adenosinergic hypnotic because of cardiovascular adverse effects. This study investigated whether N6-(4-hydroxybenzyl) adenineriboside (T1-11), an adenosine analogue extracted from Gastrodia elata, produce somnogenic effects in normal and insomniac mice. We determined the involvement of adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs) in the GABAergic neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), and the cardiovascular adverse effects. We found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of T1-11 prior to the dark period increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep during the dark period, and T1-11-induced sleep increases were blocked by A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 in naïve rats. Oral administration of T1-11 increased NREM sleep, but not REM sleep, during both the dark and light periods in normal mice. Microinjection of A2AR antagonist, SCH58261, into the VLPO blocked sleep effects of T1-11. In addition to the somnogenic effect in normal mice, T1-11 suppressed the acute stress-induced insomnia and this suppressive effect was blocked by SCH58261. C-fos expression in the GABAergic neurons of VLPO was increased after administration of T1-11 in Gad2-Cre::Ai14 mice, suggesting the activation of GABAergic neurons in the VLPO. We also found that T1-11 exhibited no effects in heart rate and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio of heart rate variability (HRV) in rats. We concluded that T1-11 elicited somnogenice effects and effectively ameliorated acute stress-induced insomnia. The somnogenic effect is mediated by the A2ARs to activate GABAergic neurons in the VLPO. This adenosine analogue could be a potential hypnotic because of no cardiovascular adverse effects.
China Medical University, Taiwan
Bell’s palsy is the most frequent cause of unilateral peripheral facial palsy, a common condition that third of patients can have inadequate recovery and subsequent physical and social impairments. In preclinical and clinical evidence, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has shown the ability to regenerate peripheral nerves. Laser acupuncture treatment (LAT), the stimulation of traditional acupoints with low-intensity, non-thermal laser irradiation, is becoming a common treatment modality, mainly in western countries and as well in Taiwan. Based on our on-going clinical study, the aim of this lecture is to outline the effects of LAT in treating facial paralysis and demonstarte how to integrate LAT in the treatment of facial paralysis.
Calcutta University, India
Folk-Traditional-Herbal treatment of snake-bite in the rural sectors of the India subcontinent was known more than 3-4 thousand years ago, mentioned in Ayurveda and still in practice by the traditional healers Ojhas, villagers. The scientific validation of such knowledge started in India in early 19th century and still continuing. The translation of the Folk-Traditional-Herbal treatment of snake-bite was a big challenge, which has been done over thirty five years of research in Calcutta University. Starting from the traditional information, we have identified herbs and their active constituents which effectively antagonised snake (Viper, Naja) venom in animal models. We have proposed new treatment protocol for snake-bite, combing the traditional and modern treatment, i.e, combination therapy (herbs+ASVS). The use of nanotechnology & traditional knowledge together was an effective process for the development of snake venom antidote. What is more important in traditional medicine that (1) the traditional knowledge & information need to be preserved in a systematic & scientific way (2) inter disciplinary research in traditional medicine (snake bite)involving clinicians, scientists, technologists, etc.
Southwest Jiaotong University, People's Republic of China.
The genera of Aconitum and Delphinium, also called “CaoWu”, distributed in the temperate region of the northern hemisphere were comprised of about 650 species, of which 280 were found in China. More than 70 species of them were the well-known traditional Chinese medicinal materials widely used for the treatment of strokes, epilepsy, and tetanus diseases in ancient China. Diterpenoid alkaloids were typical chemical components of “CaoWu”, and displayed various bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmia, and cytotoxic properties. Zhou and coworkers focus on the phytochemistry, semisynthetic and biological activities of diterpenoid alkaloids in recent years. In the systematically phytochemical studies on the plants of 28 species Aconitum and Delphinium genera, over 450 compounds were isolated which included two novel skeletons and 124 new diterpenoid alkaloids. Anthriscifolsine A (1) represents an unprecedented type of C20–diterpenoid alkaloid, possessed a seco C–ring through C11–C12 bond cleavage of hetisine-type skeleton. Three novel diterpenoid alkaloids (2-4) featured the undescribed aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid skeleton with the cleavage of C15-C16 bond. Anthoroisine A (5) was the first example of diterpenoid alkaloid conjugated a unique diterpenoid moiety. Iliensine A (6) was the natural diterpenoid alkaloid containing a infrequent glucose group and 7 was the rare racemulosine skeleton alkaloid bearing a glucose group. Apetalunine A (8) showed excellently neuroprotective effect were found to protect SH–SY5Y from MPP+, with rescue rate 77% (50 μM).
NanHua University, Taiwan
Owner of City Bear Eco-farm
Perseverance is the goal of human developments, and sustainable agriculture is the guarantee of human survival. Based on the four principles of “health, ecology, fairness and care”, it encourages global humanity to achieve more transparent integration, innovation cultivation and sustainability. It is hoped that the earth, mankind, and all living things will provide sustainable approaches, to achieve perseverance, and create a win-win and prosperous future.
Most farms, their land area are small, less than one ha in Taiwan, making it difficult for organic agriculture to achieve the goal of “sustainability”, especially on the aspect of economic vitality. In order to establish a sustainable model suitable for small scale farmers in Taiwan, the author established a demonstration of biodynamic farm with “no pollution and zero waste”. The farm raised honey bees, crops and animals, and applying rotation, intercropping, mulching, covering, to develop a model of joint production of animals and crops. Crops cultivated including medicinal herbs, such as Mesona (Platostoma palustre), and turmeric (Curcuma longa), fruits and coffee trees. The mesona and coffee are flower resources supplying nectar and pollen for the honey bees. Honey's ability to heal wounds and treat infections is quite notable in TCM. It’s also known for the antioxidant, antibiotic and antiviral capabilities. The farm also feed the black soldier fly for hens. All the income from products of honey bees, fruits, coffee, medicinal herbs and eggs are enough for a family survived, even only a small farm land of 0.3ha.
All the practices in farm are based on the principle of circular economy and biodynamics, the waste--soybean residue is used to feed black soldier fly, and then the larvae are used to feed the hens. Honey bees making pollination and thus nice harvests of coffee and fruits. This "non-polluting and zero-waste" circular production system will be the correct production method for sustainable biodynamic agriculture in the future. And in all aspects of "balanced carbon dioxide emission", which is a model not only for survival of young farmers without big enough land area, but also for aged people a healthy retired life. Especially it is an approach in line with the requirements of sustainable agricultural managements, also for medicinal herbs and honey production.
Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan
Acupuncture is a rapidly growing medical specialty worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the acupuncture publications from 1988 to 2017 by using the Web of Science (WoS) database. Familiarity with the trend of acupuncture publications will facilitate a better understanding of existing academic research in acupuncture and its applications. A total of 7450 articles were published in the field of acupuncture globally during the period of 1988 to 2015. Annual article publications increased from 109 in 1988 to 670 in 2015. The People's Republic of China (published 2076 articles, 27.9%), USA (published 1638 articles, 22.0%) and South Korea (published 707 articles, 9.5%) were the most abundantly prolific countries. According to the WoS subject categories, 2591 articles (34.8%) were published in the category of Integrative and Complementary Medicine, followed by Neurosciences (1147 articles, 15.4%), and General Internal Medicine (918 articles, 12.3%). Kyung Hee University (South Korea) is the most prolific organization that is the source of acupuncture publications (365 articles, 4.9%). Fields within acupuncture with the most cited articles included mechanism, clinical trials, epidemiology, and a new research method of acupuncture. Publications associated with acupuncture increased rapidly from 1988 to 2015. The different applications of acupuncture were extensive in multiple fields of medicine, which can play an important role in developing a medical discipline for acupuncture.
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
Quiescent or dormant cancer cells remained growth arrest and thus escaped chemo- or radio-therapy. Quiescent cancer cells were able to repopulate when microenvironment turned appropriate, which was considered as the main cause of cancer recurrence. Targeting quiescent cancer cells could enhance chemo- or radio- sensitivity and provide a new strategy to deal with cancer recurrence. Unfortunately, there is so far no specific clinical management for quiescent cancer cells.
Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a CFDA approved flu and cold medicine from the TCM herb Bupleurum DC. Here we indentified the cytotoxicity of SSA on chemotherapy-resistant quiescent prostate cancer cells. Additionaly, SSA showed selective cytotoxicity to quiescent prostate cancer cells, but showed little effect on viability of proliferating prostate cancer cells and prostate stromal cells. The underlying mechanism might through inducing apoptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, the activity of SSA to enhance chemotherapy sensitivity was studied in vivo. The results showed that tumor volume of Docetaxel and SSA combination group was significantly decreased compared with either Docetaxel only or vehicle group. No significant toxicity was observed in all groups. Taken together, this study highlighted the potential of SSA to induce cell death of quiescent prostate cancer cells and to support chemotherapy in preventing cancer recurrence. Further mechanism of SSA on inducing quiescent prostate cancer cell death would be investigated both in vitro and in vivo.
National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan
We previosuly isolated a sulfated glucan (called SGA) from Antrodia cinnamomea. In this study, we demonstrated that SGA suppressed lung tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SGA potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-resistant human lung cancer A549 and H1975 cells. TGFβ signaling and overexpression of Slug are regarded as the critical events in lung tumor malignancy. Functional studies revealed that SGA effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK and AKT, resulting in suppressing cancer cell viability and migration. Moreover, we found that SGA downregulated N-cadherin expression but increase E-cadherin levels, suggesting that SGA may inhibit EMT process. Interestingly, we found SGA significantly reduced TGFβ receptor (TGFβR) expression. Using a series of TGFβR degradation inhibitors, we found that SGA induced TGFβR degradation via inducing lipid-raft-mediated lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. In addition, SGA elimination of TGFβ-mediated intracellular AKT signaling promoted downregulation of Slug in H1975 cells. We found that SGA reduced Slug expression by potentially accelerating protein degradation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that proteasome-dependent Slug degradation was controlled by TGFβ-mediated AKT/GSK3β signaling pathways; however, inhibitor of GSK3 abolished SGA-induced Slug degradation. Our findings suggested that SGA targets of the TGFβ/AKT/GSK3β axis played a key role in enhancing Slug degradation and suppressing lung cancer cells. In addition, SGA may be a potential therapeutic supplement for lung cancer.
Ma Lang Neurology and Chinese Medicine Clinic, Republic of China
This presentation covers an introduction of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) , focusing on the traditional oldest theoretic basis from the perspective of Fu Xing Juay (The theory of five element and five flavor, A.D.400) which regarding ADHD’s cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The author presents newly approach in treating ADHD with the oldest prescripton of Fu Xing Juay by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidences. The author tries to inspire more research to understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote TCM therapies to help patients with ADHD.
National Yang-Ming University and University of Taipei, Taiwan
Dietary fat has been suggested to be the cause of various health issues. Obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia and kidney disease are known to be associated with a high-fat diet. Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. Few prospective pharmaceutical therapies that directly target NAFLD are available at present. A traditional Chinese medicine, Ginseng-plus-Bai-Hu-Tang (GBHT), is widely used by diabetic patients to control glucose level or thirst. However, whether it has therapeutic effects on fat-induced hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine the therapeutic effect of GBHT on fat-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. GBHT protected mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, compared with mice that were not treated. GBHT inhibited the expansion of adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy. No ectopic fat deposition was found in the livers of HFD mice treated with GBHT. In addition, glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was also improved by GBHT. GBHT prevents changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in a high-fat diet mouse model. Our findings provide evidence for the traditional use of GBHT as therapy for the management of metabolic syndrome.
Maulana Azad College, West Bengal, India
Snakes and its body parts have been used in folk and traditional medicine of various cultures since ancient time. Evidences in Chinese and Levantine medicinal system suggested the usage of snake shed skin in treatment of several diseases. In Indian traditional medicinal system, ash of shed snake skin is used for inducing labour in pregnant women which lacks scientific validation. Though used extensively by traditional healers there is no scientific evidence about shed snake skin as a source of bioactive component. This present study was undertaken to explore the bioactivity of shedded snake (Naja) skin and the characterization of its bioactive constituents.
The shedded snake (Naja) skin collected and extract was prepared. The extract caused temporary cessation of the estrous cycle in albino rats for 10 days and produced histopathological alteration in the uterus and ovary. In the pregnant rat, it altered progesterone, estradiol and C-reactive protein and eventually caused fetal resorption. In the pups, it inhibited the normal process of development. The ethno-ophiologic study on the bio activity of the snake shed skin in experimental animal model shall be discussed in this conference.
China Medical University, Taiwan, R.O.C
Pulse diagnosis is unique in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and keeps evolving. Its outcomes often vary among clinicians owing to their individual perception. The author found pulse diagnosis easier to master after the physician’s qi sensation, especially his/her perception of vibration, is enhanced via qigong training. He becomes gradually capable of distinguishing each morbid pulse and has named this novel pulse diagnosis method Li’s Recovery Pulse Diagnosis (LRPD). Here he introduces the standard operating procedure of LRPD. There are three categories of morbid pulses: meridian, local, and visceral. Each category incorporates several types of morbid pulses, and each morbid pulse contains two parts: pulse position and pulse condition. The author found that external pathogens in TCM, such as cold, heat, dryness or dampness pathogen, may cause tight, slippery, rapid, or soggy pulses, which are easily sensed using a distal pulp of the fingers. If qi stagnation or blood stasis have developed, string-like or rough pulses are detected using the fingertips. A correlation between meridian diseases and viral infections was also established. During the H1N1 pandemic breakout in 2009, he observed a clear increase in the prevalence of the meridian disease of “lesser yang and lesser yin slippery pulse” using LRPD. He selected Portulaca oleracea (PO) to treat patients with this specific morbid pulse, and their symptoms were rapidly relieved; PO was confirmed to have excellent anti-H1N1 activity. LRPD is effective in detecting meridian diseases, which indicates the early stage of diseases, and can therefore be applied during an emerging viral attack.