Southern Medical University, China
The aim of this study is to explore the correlations between fasciology and yin yang doctrine. Professor Yuan Lin developed fasciology by three-dimensional reconstruction of connective tissue (fascia) in the trunk and limbs of the human body and tracing back to tissue origins in light of biological evolution and developmental biology. Fasciology states that the human body can be divided into two systems: the supporting-storing system and the functional system. This article elaborates on the roles of the two systems and their mutual relationship. The two systems are used to analyze the yin, the yang, and their relationship. The two systems are promoted but also restricted in different contexts. The supporting-storing system is formed by undifferentiated connective tissue and provides undifferentiated cells and nutrients for differentiated cells of the functional system. Thus, the supporting-storing system could be classified as quiet, similar to yin. The functional system continuously maintains the various functional activities of the human body. Thus, the functional system could be classified as active, similar to yang. In interpreting the yin yang doctrine from the point of view of fasciology, yin can be compared with the supporting-storing system and yang can be compared with the functional system. According to fasciology theory, first proposed by Professor Yuan in 2004, the human body can be divided into two systems. One is a supporting− storing system consisting of undifferentiated nonspecific connective tissues including loose connective and adipose tissue. The other system is a functional system, which consists of a variety of differentiated functional cells and is surrounded and supported by the fascial frame of the supporting-storing system. The study of the biological properties of the fascial frame and the relationship between these two systems has been called fasciology or two-system theory. The human body is known to be composed of two parts, yin and yang, according to the famous yin yang doctrine of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, it is very likely that there is a close relationship between the two-system theory and yin yang doctrine. The aim of this article is to discuss this possible relationship and how the two systems of fasciology theory correspond with the two fundamental human aspects, yin and yang.
Kansai University of Health Science, Japan
Various descriptions of hair were investigated in Chinese classics, such as Suwen or Lingshu of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). Next the concept of alopecia of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in ancient times was discussed. The findings suggested that the three elements of Qi (energy), Xue (blood) and Jinye (fluid and humor) were important to stimulate hair growth. In this way, it is understood that the diagnosis (pattern identification/syndrome differentiation and treatment) of alopecia in modern TCM has developed into today’s TCM. Such ancient concept of hair might have developed into today's TCM diagnosis (pattern identification/syndrome differentiation and treatment) of alopecia. Such tendencies were also found in the leucocyte subsets which indicate the balance of the autonomic nervous system.
Kansai University of Health Science, Japan
Purpose: Psychogenic effects or social stress is known to affect chronic low back pain (CLBP); hence, investigation of its underlying causes requires a multifactorial approach. We determined the factors associated with CLBP by using an Internet-based survey. To prevent CLBP, we need to understand its cause and background.
Methods: A total of 1000 participants either with (+) or without (−) CLBP answered the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), which assesses five domains of CLBP: pain-related disorders, lumbar spine dysfunction, gait disturbance, social life dysfunction, and psychological disorders. We also administered a new questionnaire for participants, that comprised five different domains: Body, Lifestyle, Emotion, Diet, and Social. To evaluate psychogenic effects on CLBP, we added two original factors, namely outshout and HIE (xuhan), which have not yet been studied. HIE is a traditional concept (sense) of “feeling cold” or “chilly.” All participants completed both questionnaires.
Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis extracted four factors (sleep, room temperature, outshout, and HIE) that were associated with CLBP.
Conclusion: Among psychogenic effects, Emotion was common to all the four extracted factors. There was no common physical divisor. Therefore, we hypothesized that acute low back pain might develop into CLBP in the presence of psychological stress or other emotional factors such as outshout or HIE. Hence, we need to consider both physical and psychogenic effects in the prevention and treatment of CLBP. Furthermore, appropriate evaluation and treatment of psychological stress may be effective in reducing CLBP.
National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taiwan
In Taiwan, applying Pediatric Tuina to promote the health of children is in the ascendant. To ensure the Pediatric Tuina practioner’s ability, it is necessary to develop a training program that are reflect real clinical situations. Beside experts’ opinions of curriculum establishment and reform, the clinical encounters related to Pediatric Tuina had not been discussed.
This article was aimed to develop a framework to understand the working situation on Pediatric Tuina from the published literatures.
Scenario analysis has been considered as an effective method to support new teaching programs development. The approach of scenario analysis was employed to review the published Pediatric Tuina related literatures.
Based on the literatures, this article described the main constructs to analysis scenarios on Pediatric Tunia which healthcare professionals might encounter. The key constructs can be categorized into four axes, named as 1) Environmental Sanitation, 2) Evaluation of the health need, 3) providing required tunia plan, and 4) modification and termination of tunia plan. Every construct includes three parts: person, material and environment, as well as activities.
Scenario analysis on the published articles could provide a framework for understanding the working situation on Pediatric Tuina that can be used to develop a practical training program in the future.
BaiLing Chinese Medicine Clinic, Taiwan
Background: Pediatric Tuina is one of methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine managing in many healthy problems. Recently, many studies have shown pediatric Tuina is able to treat diarrhea in children. However, healthy system of Taiwan has established a procedure to manage pediatric diarrhea. A systemic review of add-on study was conducted to state the value of pediatric Tuina adding in the procedure.
Method: Pediatric tuina and diarrhea without language limitation were used to collect relevant studies in the electronic databases: Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Airiti Library, and Wan-fang, and the database were up to September, 2019. After removing duplicates, studies were selected according to the inclusion criteria: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and add-on study. Interventions with the same therapeutic procedures as control groups using pediatric tuina alone or combined with Chinese medicine, moxibustion, or herbal patch were included. Lacking data for course of disease, non-RCT, unpublished, literature review, case studies, without comparators, and experience summaries were excluded. In the control groups, patients received standard therapy to manage diarrhea. Effective rate was the primary outcome and others like as cure rate, and cure time were also included.
Result: Details of the studies are summarized in age, gender, TCM patent, pharmacotherapy, herbal patch, and efficiency. Pediatric diarrhea can be better treated in combination with pediatric tuina alone or with other related interventions under standard treatment procedures.
China Medical University, Taiwan
Background: The traditional Chinese medicine You-Gui-Wan (YGW) contains ten species of medicinal plants and has been used to improve health in remissive states of asthma for hundreds of years in Asia. In our previous studies, YGW has been shown to have an effect on reducing asthma symptoms in mice with chronic asthma induced by recurrent Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp) stimulation. However, the immune regulation mechanism of YGW treatment on mast cells remains unclear.
Methods: The airways of BALB/c mice were stimulated with Der p (i.t.) once per week (40 μL, 2.5μg/μL) for 6 consecutive weeks, and the mice were fed YGW (0.5 g/kg and 0.2g/kg) 30 min prior to the Der p stimulation. Three days after the last stimulation, the mice were sacrificed to evaluate the lung histological features, and total IgE in the blood. Additionally, after DNP-IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells were treated with YGW for 30 min, 0.05 ug/mL DNP-hAb was added to stimulate the RBL-2H3 cells to evaluate the effect of the medicine on the antigen-induced degranulation.
Results: YGW significantly reduced the Der p-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells into airways, airway hyperresponsiveness, and decreased the total IgE and Der p-specific IgE in serum.YGW inhibited the antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells mast cell.
Conclusion: These results indicated that in the chronic asthma mouse model, YGW inhibits the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways and airway hyperresponsiveness and exhibits specific immunoregulatory effects. YGW inhibited the degranulation of β-hexosamidase in RBL-2H3 mast cells.
Fudan University School of Pharmacy, China
Turkish Gall is often used in traditional Uyghur medicine (TUM) to treat ulcerative colitis, which has various pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, antitumor, hemostatic and analgesic. The Turkish gall powder was extracted from crude galls with water, then filtered, concentrated, and evaporated to dryness. In this study, we preliminarily studied the mechanism of Turkish gall killing colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro. Firstly, CCK8 cell viability assay showed that Turkish gall could significantly kill CRC HT-29 and CT-26 cells. Subsequently, through flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, laser confocal and western blot, we found that Turkish gall could remarkably induce caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagic cell death (ACD) in HT-29 cells. In addition, transwell experiments, wound healing tests and ROS assays demonstrated that Turkish gall could also inhibit tumor cell viability by affecting cell migration and inducing accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, Turkish gall has a potential to be developed as an anti-colon cancer TUM drug.
Jagannath Kishore College, West Bengal, India
Folk-traditional use of venomous arthropod (spider, scorpion, bee etc.) extract in alleviating pathophysiological condition (Pain, inflammation) by the tribal community (Santhal, Lodha) of West Bengal, India is very common. The giant wood spider Nephila pilipes is very common in Purulia, Bankura, Mindnapur district in West Bengal. Several tribal community (Santal, Lodha) inhabited in this region, uses the folk and traditional medicinal for alleviation of several disease process. The information obtained from old literature (Santhal medicine) & as well as local Survey. The tribal collected venomous spiders Nephila pilipes and kept in mustard oil in presence of sun light and use locally in bone joint disorder, different forms of pain and inflammation. We have developed such “spider oil” and tested against experimental arthritis, and pain models. The data shall be focused and the use of spider oil in folk and traditional medicine for alleviation of human suffering shall be discussed. It is very likely that the spider oil contain different active constituent (protein, enzymes) that are responsible for such effects and need further studies.
Gifei Chinese Medicine Clinic and China Medical University, Taiwan
Chinese physician in different times have different medications for dysmenorrhea. Therefore, by analyzing the prescriptions and drugs in ancient books and health insurance databases, we have investigated the differences in dysmenorrhea drugs between ancient and modern.
We used "dysmenorrhea" to search out 14 Chinese gynecological dysmenorrhea ancient books and 49 non-gynecological dysmenorrhea ancient books to analyze the medication. Otherwise, we also analyze Chinese medicine and prescriptions who is diagnosed dysmenorrhea, uterine fibroids or endometriosis to use in 1997-2011 National Health Insurance Database.
In the gynecological ancient books, the top three prescriptions are Siwu Tang (9.24%), Wenjing Tang (8.40%), Guizhi Taoren Tang (7.56%). In the non-gynecological ancient books, the top three prescriptions are Bawu Tang (8.82%), Siwu Tang (8.82%), Shaoyao Liuhe Tang (5.88%). The top three dysmenorrhea prescriptions in the National Health Insurance Database are Danggui Shaoyao San (15.66%), Jiawei Xiaoyao San (14.81%), Wenjing Tang (13.34%).
In the gynecological ancient books, the top three Chinese medicine are Angelica sinensis (4.74%), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (4.15%), and Corydalis yanhusuo (3.75%); .In the non-gynecological ancient books, the top three Chinese medicine are Angelica sinensis (5.70%), Cyperus rotundus (4.70%), Ligusticum striatum (3.36%); The top three dysmenorrhea Chinese medicine in the National Health Insurance Database are Corydalis yanhusuo (18.94%), Cyperus rotundus (16.57%), and Leonurus japonicus (12.21%).
According to the results, ancient and modern doctors have different prescriptions in dysmenorrhea. Also, we have analyzed their medication guidelines to seek for effective methods for treating dysmenorrheal. The result can provide a multifaceted reference for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.
Tokai University School of Medicine, Japan
Sterility is a frequent side effect in men after cancer treatment. In particular, alkylating agents and irradiation evoke testicular damage that results in prolonged azoospermia. However, there is little information about therapeutic drugs on male infertility after irradiation or alkylating agent treatment. Recently, we found that Goshajinkigan (TJ107), one of oriental Japanese medicine, can completely recover the severe aspermatogenesis after busulfan treatment in mice. In the present study, we gave TJ107 to irradiated mice to determine whether or not the TJ107 can recover the aspermatogenesis. Male C57BL/6J mice were received a single dose of 6Gy irradiation at 4-week-old and after 60 days fed on the TJ107-including diet or TJ107-free normal diet for another 60 days. And then two normal females were mated with a single male from each experiment group. The results showed that after irradiation treatment, the decreases in the fertility rate (fertility rate: 40%; abortion rate 10%) in normal diet group; on the other hand, in TJ107-including diet group, the fertility rate was reversed to 100%. These results suggest that the supplementation of TJ107 have a therapeutic effect on irradiation-induced aspermatogenesis and can recover the regeneration of the injured reproduction function.
National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences and Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taiwan
The shih-qiao-shou (十巧手) technique involves stimulation of “acupoints” on the meridian “line” through a simple knocking action to achieve the overall “plane” of the healthy way of health. Long-term dialysis affects the overall physical and mental health of patients. Moreover, dialysis is typically administered for 4 h two or three times per week, causing time to be scattered. This necessitates an alternative method that can achieve the health care goals without being restricted by venue and space. To improve the health of patients on dialysis, a health care project called “Easy shih-qiao (十巧) to bring health to your shou (手)” will be held annually, beginning from November-December, 2019, in a regional hospital in northern Taiwan. For this project, a series of videos and the shi-qiao-shou method care guidelines will be produced, and teaching methods (including instruction, demonstration, and practice) will be applied to teach patients on dialysis how to perform the shi-qiao-shou before they undergo dialysis. Subsequently, the patients will demonstrate what they have learned while they waiting for their dialysis and will be reinstructed if they perform incorrect actions or are unfamiliar with them. From this experience, the patients are expected to take initiative to perform the shi-qiao-shou regularly so as to achieve the therapeutic benefits.
Southwest Jiaotong University, People's Republic of China
There is a long history of the use of Delphinium and Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) for medicines in China. The diterpenoid alkaloids of the genera are believed to be the main bioactive constituents. To find biologically active secondary metabolites, the phytochemistry of three species isolated sixty diterpenoid alkaloids included nineteen new compounds. Delphinium grandiflorum applied for the treatment of toothache. The study on the whole herb of D. grandiflorum lead to the isolation of nine new diterpenoid alkaloids (1-9). Compound 1 is an unusual hetisine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloid in which the bond between C-4 and C-19 is broken. Aconitum hemsleynum var. circinatum is perennial herb distributed in the Southwest of China. Six new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, circinatines A-F (10-15), which included a franchetine-type and five aconitine-type contained the hydroxyl group at C-5 position were isolated. Aconitum coreanum, also called “guanbaifu” and “baifuzi”, were the well-known medicinal materials widely used to cure strokes. Chemical investigation of the plant led to four new hetisine type C20-category diterpenoid alkaloids (16-19) which might provide further clues for understanding the chemotaxonomic significance of A. coreanum. All the compounds were evaluated for against several human cancer cell lines and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects.
University of Calcutta, India
In traditional medicinal system, herbs and herbal compounds against snake bite has been well documented. Curcuma aromatica (CA) is a member of the genus Curcuma belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It has antiinflammatory, anti-headache, anti stress, anti-pox virus and antibacterial activities. Some tribal healers in India use the rhizome part of CA as antisnake venom, but its scientific evaluation has not been well established. In the present study, CA rhizome extract was conjugated with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) by adsorption method (CA-AuNP), and its efficacy against Naja kaouthia (NK) snake venom induced neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and inflammatory responses was evaluated in animal model systems. Physicochemical characterization of CA-AuNP was done by DLS, FTIR, Zeta potential and FESEM. NK venom induced in vitro neurotoxicity (rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm, chick biventer cervicis model) and cardiotoxicity (guineapig heart and auricle) study was established. NK venom induced paw edema, inflammatory markers (IL 1β, TNF α, IL 6, IL 17a and IL 10) were evaluated. Physicochemical characterization of CA-AuNP confirmed the formation, shape and stability of the particle. CA-AuNP significantly reduced NK venom induced neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and inflammatory response in animal model; neutralizing capacity of CA-AuNP was > CA alone. Further studies on the antivenom activity and molecular mechanism of CA-AuNP are warranted.
Malang Islamic University, Indonesia
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increasing of dyslipidemia that involved in atherosclerosis process. The level of non-High Density Lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) are a strong predictor of them. Glycine max (G. max) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinalle) are functional food that have been used to cure some diseases empirically. However, the potency of herbs to inhibit atherogenic on DM have not been evaluated.
The study aims to examine anti-atherogenic effect of G.max and Z. officinale on diabetic rat.
Diabetic rats (spraque dawley) were induced by High Fructose High Fat Diet (HFHFD) and single dose streptozotocin 25 mg/kg bw intra peritoneal. The rat was administrated orally with G.max in dose of 5000 mg/kg bw, Z. officinale 500 mg/kg bw and its combination for 4 weeks. Blood sample was collected from intra cardiac, furthermore, the level of non-HDL cholesterol (total cholesterol minus HDL-cholesterol) and AIP (Triglyceride serum-HDL cholesterol ratio) examined from calculation of lipid profile. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test continued with LSD test (p < 0,05).
The oral administration of G.max 5000 mg/kg bw, Z. officinale 500 mg/kg bw and its combination were able to decrease non-HDL cholesterol level approximately 20 %, 40 % and 50 % respectively compared to diabetic group (p<0.05), while the AIP level were decreased by 30 %, 60 % and 60 % (p<0.05) respectively. In diabetic groups, non-HDL level was increased more and less 6-fold compared to normal group (p<0.05) while the AIP level were increased by 7-fold (p<0.05).
Z. officinale single and its combination with G.max could inhibit atherogenic stronger compare to G.max single by reducing of non-HDL and AIP level.